Lot 32 A rare jade carving of a chimera, bixie

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拍卖公司:邦瀚斯香港
拍卖时间:2016-04-05

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分类: 瓷玉杂项--玉石器
尺寸: 8.7cm (3 3/8in) long;
A rare jade carving of a chimera, bixie
Han Dynasty or later
Carefully carved in mid-stride with wings issuing from the muscular front legs, its body with incised details and a bifurcated tail, the beast's head with opened jaws depicting a ferocious facial expression framed by a long beard and a pair of curved horns, the pale greenish-grey stone with calcified opaque buff areas.
8.7cm (3 3/8in) long
  • 漢或以後 青玉雕辟邪

    Published and Illustrated 出版:
    Art and Imitation in China, Hong Kong, 2006, pp.124-125, no.19
    《馳騁古今:中國藝術的仿摹與創新》,香港,2006年,頁124-125,編號19

    Exhibited 展覽:
    University Museum and Art Gallery, The University of Hong Kong (14 October - 17 December 2006)
    香港大學美術博物館,2006年10月14日至12月17日

    Jade animals carved in the round were comparatively more common in the Han dynasty than in previous periods and a great emphasis was placed on the depiction of wild animals in all their ferocity. Fighting tigers, intimidating bears, fierce eagles and mythical animals carved in menacing or aggressive postures were popular and were made in bronze and jade, depicted on textiles.

    This animal, with the head of a dragon, but the body and claws of a lion with large feathery wings is inspired by prototypes from West Asia transmitted to China. Recent studies suggest that the motif of such winged mythical beasts derives from cross-cultural stimulation by way of continuous trade interaction and warfare with Western Asia and in particular, the Steppe areas near China's Northern borders. See J.Rawson, 'The Han Empire and its Northern Neighbours: The Fascination of the Exotic', The Search for Immortality, Tomb Treasures of Han China, Cambridge, 2012, p.28. Images of these beasts were often placed in tombs, either as tomb guardians to protect the deceased against evil spirits, or as auspicious carvings and decoration on smaller luxury ornaments.

    Compare with a jade bixie, Western Han dynasty, excavated from Zhouling County, Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province, currently in the Xianyang Museum, illustrated by Gu Fang, The Pictorial Handbook of Ancient Chinese Jades, Beijing, 2007, p.272. See also related jade bixie carvings with similarly elongated heads including: a grey and black jade bixie, Han dynasty, illustrated in Compendium of Collections in the Palace Museum: Jade 4, Beijing, 2011, p.178, no.236; another illustrated by Tsai Ching-Liang, Jades of Han Dynasty, Taipei, 2005, pl.126. Compare also a brown jade bixie, Han dynasty, Masterworks of Chinese Jade in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1969, pl.20.

    青玉玉質,局部受沁白化。神獸伏地,昂首,雙角向後延伸,雙目圓睜,張口露齒,鬣鬚自下頷垂搭於前胸,長頸,挺胸,四肢蹲伏作勢前躍,短粗有力。身側有羽翼,陰刻簡單短平行線或弧線以暗示獸毛或羽翅,翼末端斜上收尾,將略顯沉重的身軀向上昇抬,長尾彎曲。此獸造型生動,神態兇猛,充滿動感,表現出很高的工藝水平。

    自漢代起,中國古玉發展進入全面立體化高峰期,從此出現大量採用圓雕技法的玉雕動物及神獸。漢魏六朝玉神獸主要是辟邪及天馬怪獸等。傳統認為辟邪的原型為獅子,獅子在西漢武帝之時便進入中國內地,如《山海經》中記載:「辟邪之獸,來自海東神獸,能知人之忠佞,不直者,觸而啖殺之。」而《漢書·西域傳》中亦有記載:「一角者,或為天祿,兩角者,或為辟邪。」

    可參看陝西省咸陽市渭城區周陵鄉出土一件西漢玉辟邪,現存咸陽博物館,著錄於古方,《中國古玉器圖典》,北京,2007年,頁273。另見北京故宮博物院藏一件漢代玉辟邪,其較長之獸口與本品類似,見《故宮博物院藏品大系:玉器編4:漢魏晉南北朝》,北京,2011年,頁178,編號236;同見台北國立故宮博物院藏一例漢代玉辟邪,《Masterworks of Chinese Jade in the National Palace Museum》,台北,1969年,圖版20。震旦藝術博物館藏有一件西漢晚期玉仙人騎神獸,其神獸頭部比例亦可比較參考,見蔡慶良著,《漢代玉器》,台北,2005年,圖版126。
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