估   价 HKD 16,000,000-20,000,000 (折合人民币:13,952,510-17,440,638)
拍卖专场:Images of Devotion


分类: 瓷玉杂项--佛像唐卡等
A GILT COPPER ALLOY FIGURE OF PADMAPANI LOKESHVARA TIBET, CIRCA 1400With inset turquoise, coral, and lapis.Himalayan Art Resources item no.61740 55 cm (21 3/4 in.) high (including lotus stem);51 cm (20 1/8 in.) high (excluding lotus stem) Footnotes This refined gilded sculpture of standing Padmapani Lokeshvara follows a foreign, ancient mode of representing the bodhisattva imported to Tibet. Itinerant Newari craftsmen from the Kathmandu Valley achieved the most accomplished renditions of the standing bodhisattva form in cast bronze. Renown throughout Asia, this ethnic group passed artistic traditions and expertise between generations of masters. Tibetan patrons commissioned Newars for major artistic projects, recorded, for instance, in the tashi gomang stupas of Densatil monastery, and the thangka sets of Sakya and Ngor. The present sculpture arises from such circumstances, following the ascent of wealth and patronage in Central Tibet around the beginning of the 15th century. Combining Newari and Tibetan aesthetic proclivities, this sculpture represents the pinnacle of the standing bodhisattva form in Tibetan art.Avalokiteshvara, "The Lord Who Looks Down", does just so with a kind smile and a gesture of charity with his right hand. Avalokiteshvara is the paradigm of perfected compassion, one of the key virtues a practitioner must develop towards his or her own buddhahood. The master Newar depicts Avalokiteshvara arising from a lotus flower, an ubiquitous Buddhist symbol for any being's potential to rise from murky waters and realize their innate buddhahood. This form of Avalokiteshvara, known as Padmapani Lokeshvara, 'The Lotus Holder', echoes such symbolism, for by his hand help is provided toward enlightened salvation. The leitmotif of the standing bodhisattva in a limber pose, with a bare torso, supple waist, and sheer lower garment, traces back to the golden age of Indian sculpture in the Gupta period (4th-to 6th-centuries). A famed standing Padmapani from Sarnath in the National Museum, New Delhi exemplifies this root (cf. Across the Silk Road, Beijing, 2016, pp.160-1. no.70). The Newars adopted and preserved this tradition, adding exaggerated narrow waists and swollen thighs by 13th-century and the establishment of the early Malla dynastic style. A consummate Nepalese example of standing Padmapani from 14th-century is held in the Rubin Museum of Art (Collection Highlights: The Rubin Museum of Art, New York, 2014, p.80-1). By contrast, the Rubin's Nepalese example shows more preoccupation with the figure's modeling, whereas the present bronze stresses a more densely gilded, patterned, and inset surface.   Tibetan aesthetic proclivities towards rich surfaces are conveyed in its unique tradition of portrait sculpture. Early portraits such as numerous c.13th-century, heavily gilded sculptures of Jigten Sumgon Rinchenpel (1143-1217) dress him in a precisely articulated patchwork robe with finely beaded hems. A prime example survives in Serkhang monastery, published by von Schroeder, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, vol.2, Hong Kong, 2003, pp.1036-7, no.258B. He is presented before a throne encrusted with copious semi-precious stones and almost no inch left unornamented. He is flanked by standing bodhisattvas that demonstrate little concern for an elaborate pose, while being studded with oversized pieces of inset turquoise. Rinchenpel invited Newari craftsmen to create his sculptures and his visionary tashi gomang stupas (Czaja & Proser (eds), Golden Vision of Densatil, New York, 2014, p.184). Newari craftsmen were familiar with setting stones into sculpture within the Malla tradition, but the Tibetan patron clearly showed greater enthusiasm.  The present sculpture's use of silver inlay is also quite distinct from purer Nepalese examples. The artist has incorporated beaded silver ware seamlessly in the Avalokiteshvara's crown, necklace, belt, and most prominently in the sacred thread (ratnopavita) traversing his torso and thighs. Again, earlier portrait sculpture conveys the Tibetan preference for inlaid precious metals, exemplified in a 12th-/13th-century portrait of Phagmodrupa (1110-70) in the Cleveland Museum of Art (1993.160). Phagmodrupa's eyes, teeth, and hems are all inlaid with silver, as are the guardians of his throne. Tibetan's fondness for inlay almost certainly stemmed from their appreciation for fine Kashmir and Pala bronzes. However, it was little adopted in Nepal, demonstrated by its absence from a large gilded bronze of Manjushri also in the Cleveland Museum of Art (1964.370), roughly contemporaneous with the present Padmapani.  Thus, marrying the Newar's classical, elegant, rhythmic, and sensuous modeling with the Tibetan preference for more engraved, inlaid, and embellished surfaces, this masterpiece represents their perfect synthesis at a moment frequently described as 'Tibet's renaissance', when great monuments are attempted and art is met with great wealth. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore holds a closely related Padmapani almost certainly by the same set of artists for the same monastic project (54.3098; Pal, Desire and Devotion, Baltimore, 2001, p.295, no.171;fig.1). Provenance Benny Rustenberg, Hong Kong, 1998 Private European Collection 銅鎏金蓮華手觀音像西藏,約1400年鑲嵌綠松石、珊瑚、及青金石。喜馬拉雅藝術資源網61740號含底端蓮莖:高55釐米(21 3/4 英吋) 不含底端蓮莖:高51釐米(20 1/8 英吋)16,000,000-20,000,000港元此尊蓮華手菩薩立像造於西藏,其優美的姿態則傳承自一種境外古老的菩薩造像方式。這種以銅鑄造的立式菩薩像,以來自加德滿都谷地的內瓦爾族匠師的作品最為人稱道。內瓦爾族人世代相傳的高超工藝聞名亞洲內外。據記載,西藏供養人就常出資邀請內瓦爾匠師入藏完成重要藝術作品,例如丹薩替寺中著名的吉祥多門塔,以及薩迦派和鄂爾派的唐卡系列等。十五世紀初期,藏中地區經濟繁榮,人民信仰虔誠,而此件傑出的蓮華手菩薩便是在這樣的時代背景下誕生,完美地融合了內瓦爾與西藏本土審美特色,代表著西藏立式菩薩像中的巔峰之作。 觀音菩薩,意為「觀察世間音聲覺悟有情」。此尊像垂目微笑,右手掌向外結與願印的形象,恰好體現出觀音菩薩悲憫眾生的內在精神氣質。慈悲是佛教修行的核心,觀音菩薩則是圓滿無礙大悲心的典範。此尊觀音自蓮花中升起,象徵著佛理教化中所說眾生皆可如清蓮出淤泥而不染一般,於濁世中見自佛性。作為觀音的一種身形,蓮華手菩薩手持蓮花的造型寓意與自蓮花中升起的寓意相呼應,象徵著菩薩誓願奉獻自身無窮力量救渡眾生。常見於立式菩薩像中微傾的站姿,袒露的上身,柔軟的腰肢和下身輕薄的裙裳等造像特徵最早可追溯到印度造像的黃金時期 ─ 笈多王朝時期(西元四至六世紀),例如藏於新德里國家博物館中著名的鹿野苑蓮華手菩薩像便是一早期範例(參見《Across the Silk Road》,北京,2016年,頁160-1,圖70)。印度造像藝術發展至尼泊爾後,內瓦爾工匠以這一造像傳統為基礎進行再創作,使立像腰肢更為纖細,腿部肌肉更為發達,最終於13世紀形成了獨特的早期馬拉王朝風格。紐約魯賓博物館中亦收藏有一尊14世紀尼泊爾蓮華手菩薩立像 (參見《魯賓精品集》,紐約,2014年,頁80-1),相比之下,魯賓博物館藏的尼泊爾造像更注重人物身體構造,而此尊西藏作品則更強調表面澄亮的鎏金,繁密絢麗的紋飾以及璀璨的寶石鑲嵌等裝飾細節。西藏造像對華麗造型的偏好在其特有的上師肖像中表現尤為明顯。 在早期造像中,例如諸多13世紀銅鎏金吉天頌恭仁千貝(1143-1217)像就皆以厚重的鎏金,脈絡清晰的福田衣及珠鏈紋裝飾令人印象深刻。參見供奉于青海賽康寺內的一件精美仁千貝造像(出版於施羅德,《西藏佛教雕塑》,卷二,香港,2003年,頁1036-7,圖258B),在此件造像中,仁千貝端坐於一個以無數半寶石精工鑲嵌的寶座上,同時兩側站立的菩薩周身也有尺寸醒目的綠松石鑲嵌其間。然而這尊富麗華美的西藏造像與丹薩替寺中的吉祥多門塔卻都是由仁千貝請來的內瓦爾匠師創作完成(Zaja & Proser編,Golden Vision of Densatil, 紐約,2014年, 頁184)。內瓦爾匠師在馬拉王朝時期就已熟練掌握鑲嵌技藝,但西藏富裕又虔誠的供養人明顯對這一奢華的工藝更為熱衷,使其在西藏造像中得到更大發揮,取得更高的藝術成就。另外,此件作品中精美絕倫的錯銀工藝也明顯異於尼泊爾造像中較為古樸的錯銀樣式。細看菩薩寶冠、項鏈、腰帶及自左肩纏繞至腿部醒目的聖帶,裝飾其間的銀質珠鏈連續不斷又顆顆分明,工藝十分考究。早期的西藏造像中多見貴金屬鑲嵌,例如克利夫蘭藝術博物館藏的一尊十二至十三世紀帕木竹巴(1110-70)就是一個很好的詮釋(館藏編號1993.160)。造像中,帕木竹巴的雙眼,牙齒,衣緣,以及金剛座下的護法坐騎等均以白銀鑲嵌,裝飾性極高。西藏人對貴金屬鑲嵌技術的喜愛源於他們對早期克什米爾和帕拉造像的崇拜,然而尼泊爾匠師則較少採用這一技法。克利夫蘭藝術博物館中另藏有一尊與此件蓮華手菩薩同時期的重要尼泊爾文殊菩薩像(館藏編號1964.370),但此文殊菩薩像中就不見西藏式的繁複金屬鑲嵌。「西藏文藝復興」時期,大量湧入的善款成就了許多豐碑似的建築與藝術品。此件傑作完美融合了內瓦爾造像傳統與西藏本地審美風格,整體造型經典優雅、韻律十足,細微處精密的花紋簪刻與鑲嵌工藝又精彩紛呈、富麗華貴,無疑代表了同時期造像的最高藝術水準。美國巴爾的摩的瓦爾特藝術博物館中藏有一尊極為類似的蓮華手菩薩像,對比兩尊的相似程度可推測兩尊是同一批匠師為同一個寺院創作而成(館藏編號54.3098; Pal,《Desire and Devotion》,巴爾的摩,2001年,頁295,171號;圖1)。來源Benny Rustenberg,香港,1998年歐洲私人珍藏